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Oleg Nazarov 

PhD., professor, professor of the department. National University of Civil Defense of Ukraine, Kharkiv (Ukraine)

ORCID 0000-0001-6205-9604


DOI - https://doi.org/10.52363/dcpp-2022.2.3

Keywords: a rescuer’s professional activity; extreme operating conditions; psychotraumatic factors.

The activity of emergency and rescue units is a material, emotional, objective and expedient activity of people in the sphere of protecting the population from the consequences of emergency situations of natural, technogenic, social, and today also of military nature. The content and forms of this activity are changing constantly, expanding and developing within the framework of the modern stage of development of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine, which confirms the relevance of the study of versatile approaches of determining the structure and features of the rescuers’ professional activity and the impact of various psycho-traumatic factors onto their personality, which is the main purpose of this article.

The analysis of recent researches and publications on modern approaches to the study of the issues of the professional activity of operational and rescue units employees has shown that a specific feature of the rescuers’ activity while eliminating the consequences of emergency situations of natural, techogenic, social and/or military nature is the peculiarity of the conditions in which it has been carried out. The conditions in which the rescuers perform their professional tasks are divided into objective ones, independent of them, and subjective ones, which arose as a result of their unsatisfactory activity.

The theoretical analysis results of the approaches to the structure of the professional activity of of operational and rescue units employees have confirmed the general scientific conclusions that the activity of eliminating the consequences of an emergency situation of technogenic, natural, social and/or military nature refers to professions that involve the performance of professional duties under stressful, extreme conditions, and the structure of this professional activity has certain structural components, those are cognitive, constructive, communicative, and organizational.

It has been stated that such activity has all the features peculiar to other "critical" types of activity: lack of time; the influence on the personality of extreme stimuli and the dominance of negative emotions with a shortage of positive ones, the increased responsibility for decision-making and the need to take urgent measures. All these features will acquire personal significance and will lead (both individually and collectively) to the emergence of a mental tension state in the rescuer.